SEVENTH STEP-RIGHT ATTENTIVENESS

RIGHT ATTENTIVENESS
WHAT, now, is Right Attentiveness? The only way that leads to the attainment of purity, to the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation,to the end of pain and grief, to the entering upon the right path and the realization of Nirvana, is the "Four Fundamentals of Attentiveness." And which are these four? In them, the disciple dwell in contemplation of the Body, in contemplation of Feeling, in contemplation of the Mind, in contemplation of the Mind-objects,ardent, clearly conscious and attentive, after putting away worldly greed and grief.

CONTEMPLATION OF THE BODY
But, how does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the body?There, the disciple retires to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to a solitary place, sits himself down, with legs crossed, body erect,and with attentiveness fixed before him. With attentive mind he breathes in, with attentive mind he breathes out. When making a long inhalation, he knows: "I make along inhalation"; when making a long exhalation, he knows: "I make along exhalation." when making a short inhalation, he knows: "I make a short inhalation"; when making a short exhalation, he knows: "I make a short exhalation." "Clearly perceiving the entire [breath]-body, I will breathe in": thus he trains himself; "clearly perceiving the entire [breath]-body, I will breathe out": thus he trains himself."Calming this bodily function, I will breathe n": thus he trains himself; "calming this bodily function, I will breathe out": thus he trains himself. Thus he dwells in contemplation of the body, either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both. He beholds how the body arises; beholds how it passes away; beholds the arising and passing away of the body. "A body is there- "A body is there, but no living being, no individual, no woman, no man, no self, and nothing that belongs to a self; neither a person, nor anything belonging to a person"- this clear consciousness is present in him, because of his knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the body. And further, whilst going, standing, sitting, or lying down, the disciple understands the expressions: "I go"; "I stand"; "I sit"; "I lie down"; he understands any position of the body. [The disciple understands that it is not a being, a real Ego, that goes, stands, etc., but that it is by a mere figure of speech that one says: "I go," "I stand," and so forth.] And further, the disciple is clearly conscious in his going and coming; clearly conscious in looking forward and backward; clearly conscious in bending and stretching; clearly conscious in eating,drinking, chewing, and tasting; clearly conscious in discharging excrement and urine; clearly conscious in walking, standing,sitting, falling asleep and awakening; clearly conscious in speaking and in keeping silent. "In all the disciple is doing, he is clearly conscious: of his intention, of his advantage, of his duty, of the reality." And further, the disciple contemplates this body from the sole of the foot upward, and from the top of the hair downward, with a skin stretched over it, and filled with manifold impurities: "This body consists of hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow,kidneys, heart, liver, diaphragm, spleen, lungs, intestines, bowels,stomach, and excrement; of bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, lymph,tears, semen, spittle, nasal mucus, oil of the joints, and urine." Just as if there were a sack, with openings at both ends, filled with all kinds of grain-with paddy, beans, sesamum and husked rice-and a man not blind opened it and examined its contents, thus: "That is paddy, these are beans, this is sesamum, this is husked rice": just so does the disciple investigate this body. And further, the disciple contemplates this body with regard to the elements: "This body consists of the solid element, the liquid element, the heating element and the vibrating element." Just as as killed butcher or butcher's apprentice, who has slaughtered a cow and divided it into separate portions, should sit down at the junction of four highroads: just so does the disciple contemplate this body with regard to the elements. And further, just as if the disciple should see a corpse thrown into the burial-ground, one, two, or three days dead, swollen-up,blue-black in color, full of corruption he draws the conclusion as or his own body: "This my body also has this nature, has this destiny,and cannot escape it." And further, just as if the disciple should see a corpse thrown into the burial-ground, eaten by crows, hawks or vultures, by dogs or jackals, or gnawed by all kinds of worms-he draws the conclusion as to his own body: "This my body also has this nature,has this destiny, and cannot escape it." And further, just as if the disciple should see a corpse thrown into the burial-ground, a framework of bones, flesh hanging from it,bespattered with blood, held together by the sinews; a framework of bones, stripped of flesh, bespattered with blood, held together by the sinews; a framework of bones, without flesh and blood, but still held together by the sinews; bones, disconnected and scattered in all directions, here a bone of the hand, there a bone of the foot,there a shin bone, there a thigh bone, there the pelvis, there the spine, there the skull-he draws the conclusion as to his own body:"This my body also has this nature, has this destiny, and cannot escape it." And further, just as if the disciple should see bones lying in the burial ground, bleached and resembling shells; bones heaped together, after the lapse of years; bones weathered and crumbled to dust;-he draws the conclusion as to his own body: "This my body also has this nature, has this destiny, and cannot escape it " Thus he dwells in contemplation of the body, either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both. He beholds how the body arises; beholds how it passes away; beholds the arising and passing of the body. "A body is there" this clear consciousness is present in him, because of his knowledge and mindfulness; and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the body.

THE TEN BLESSINGS
Once the contemplation of the body is practiced, developed, often repeated, has become one's habit, one's foundation, is firmly established, strengthened and well perfected, one may expect ten blessings: Over Delight and Discontent one has mastery; one does not allow himself to be overcome by discontent; one subdues it, as soon as it arises. One conquers Fear and Anxiety; one does not allow himself to be overcome by fear and anxiety; one subdues them, as soon as they arise. One endures cold and heat, hunger and thirst, wind and sun,attacks by gadflies, mosquitoes and reptiles; patiently one endures wicked and malicious speech, as well as bodily pains, that befall one,though they be piercing, sharp, bitter, unpleasant, disagreeable and dangerous to life. The four "Trances," the mind bestowing happiness even here: these one may enjoy at will, without difficulty, without effort. One may enjoy the different "Magical Powers." With the "Heavenly Ear," the purified, the super-human, one may hear both kinds of sounds, the heavenly and the earthly, the distant and the near. With the mind one may obtain "Insight into the Hearts of Other Beings of other persons. One may obtain "Remembrance of many Previous Births."With the "Heavenly Eye," the purified, the super-human, one may see beings vanish and reappear, the base and the noble, the beautiful and the ugly, the happy and the unfortunate; one may perceive how beings are reborn according to their deeds. One may, through the "Cessation of Passions," come to know for oneself, even in this life, the stainless deliverance of mind, the deliverance through wisdom.

CONTEMPLATION OF THE FEELINGS
But how does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the feelings? In experiencing feelings, the disciple knows: "I have an indifferent agreeable feeling," or "I have a disagreeable feeling," or "I have an indifferent feeling," or "I have a worldly agreeable feeling," or"I have an unworldly agreeable feeling," or "I have a worldly disagreeable feeling," or "I have an unworldly disagreeable feeling," or "I have a worldly indifferent feeling," or have an unworldly indifferent feeling. Thus he dwells in contemplation of the feelings, either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both. He beholds how the feelings arise; beholds how they pass away; beholds the arising and passing away of the feelings. "Feelings are there":this clear consciousness is present in him, because of his knowledge and mindfulness; and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the feelings. [The disciple understands that the expression "I feel" has no validity except as an expression of common speech; he understands that, in the absolute sense, there are only feelings, and that there is no Ego, no person, no experience of the feelings.]

CONTEMPLATION OF THE MIND
But how does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the mind? The disciple knows the greedy mind as greedy, and the not greedy mind as not greedy; knows the angry mind as angry, and the not angry mind as not angry; knows the deluded mind as deluded, and the undeluded mind as undeluded. He knows the cramped mind as cramped, and the scattered mind as scattered; knows the developed mind as developed,and the undeveloped mind as undeveloped; knows the surpassable mind a ssurpassable, and the unsurpassable mind as unsurpassable; knows the concentrated mind as concentrated, and the unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated; knows the freed mind as freed, and the unfreed mind asunfreed. ["Mind" is here used as a collective for the moments of consciousness. Being identical with consciousness, it should not be translated by "thought." "Thought" and "thinking" correspond rather to the so-called "verbal operations of the mind"; they are not, like consciousness, of primary, but of secondary nature, and are entirely absent in all sensuous consciousness, as well as in the second,third and fourth Trances. (See eighth step).] Thus he dwells in contemplation of the mind, either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both. He beholds how consciousness arises; beholds how it passes away; beholds the arising and passing away of consciousness. "Mind is there"; this clear consciousness is present in him, because of his knowledge and mindfulness; and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the mind.

CONTEMPLATION OF PHENOMENA
(Mind-objects) But how does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the phenomena?First, the disciple dwells in contemplation of the phenomen, of the"Five Hindrances." He knows when there is "Lust" in him: "In me is lust"; knows when there is "Anger" in him: "In me is anger"; knows when there is "Torpor and Drowsiness" in him: "In me is torpor and drowsiness"; knows when there is "Restlessness and Mental Worry" in him: "In me is restlessness and mental worry"; knows when there are "Doubts" in him: "In me are doubts." He knows when these hindrances are not in him: "In me these hindrances are not." He knows how they come to arise; knows how, once arisen, they are overcome; knows how, once overcome, they do not rise again in the future. [For example, Lust arises through unwise thinking on the agreeable and delightful. it may be suppressed by the following six methods:fixing the mind upon an idea that arouses disgust; contemplation of the loathsomeness of the body; controlling one's six senses;moderation in eating; friendship with wise and good men; right instruction. Lust is forever extinguished upon entrance into Anagamiship; Restlessness is extinguished by reaching Arahatship;Mental Worry, by reaching Sotapanship.] And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the phenomena, of the five Groups of Existence. He knows what Corporeality is, how it arises, how it passes away; knows what Feeling is, how it arises, how it away; knows what Perception is, how it arises, how it passes away; knows what the Mental Formations are, how they arise, how they pass away; knows what Consciousness is, how it arises, how it passes away. And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the phenomena of the six Subjective-Objective Sense-Bases. He knows eye and visual objects, ear and sounds, nose and odors, tongue and tastes, body and touches, mind and mind objects; and the fetter that arises independence on them, he also knows. He knows how the fetter comes to arise, knows how the fetter is overcome, and how the abandoned fetter does not rise again in future. And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the phenomena of the seven Elements of Enlightenment. The disciple knows when there is Attentiveness in him; when there is Investigation of the Law in him; when there is Energy in him; when there is Enthusiasm in him; when there is Tranquility in him; when there is Concentration in him; when there is Equanimity in him. He knows when it is not in him, knows how it comes to arise, and how it is fully developed. And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the phenomena of the Four Noble Truths. He knows according to reality, what Suffering is; knows according to reality, what the Origin of Suffering is; knows according to reality, what the Extinction of Suffering is;knows according to reality, what the Path is that leads to the Extinction of Suffering. Thus he dwells in contemplation of the phenomena, either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both. He beholds how the phenomena arise; beholds how they pass away; beholds the arising and passing away of the phenomena. "Phenomena are there this consciousnesses present in him because of his knowledge and mindfulness; and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the phenomena. The only way that leads to the attainment of purity, to the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, to the end of pain and grief, to the entering upon the right path, and the realization of Nirvana, is these four fundamentals of attentiveness.

NIRVANA THROUGH WATCHING OVER BREATHING
"Watching over In-and Out-breathing" practiced and developed, brings the four Fundamentals of Attentiveness to perfection; the four fundamentals of attentiveness, practiced and developed bring the seven Elements of Enlightenment to perfection; the seven elements of enlightenment, practiced and developed, bring Wisdom and Deliverance to perfection. But how does Watching over In-and Out-breathing, practiced and developed, bring the four Fundamentals of Attentiveness to perfection? I. Whenever the disciple is conscious in making a long inhalation or exhalation, or in making a short inhalation or exhalation, or is training himself to inhale or exhale whilst feeling the whole[breath]-body, or whilst calming down this bodily function-at such a time the disciple is dwelling in "contemplation of the body," of energy, clearly conscious, attentive, after subduing worldly greed and grief. For, inhalation and exhalation I call one amongst the corporeal phenomena. II. Whenever the disciple is training himself to inhale or exhale whilst feeling rapture, or joy, or the mental functions, or whilst calming down the mental functions-at such a time he is dwelling in"contemplation of the feelings," full of energy, clearly conscious,attentive, after subduing worldly greed and grief. For, the full awareness of in-and out breathing I call one amongst the feelings. III. Whenever the disciple is training himself to inhale or exhale whilst feeling the mind, or whilst gladdening the mind or whilst concentrating the mind, or whilst setting the mind free-at such a time he is dwelling in "contemplation of the mind," full of energy, clearly conscious, attentive, after subduing worldly greed and grief. For,without attentiveness and clear consciousness, I say, there is no Watching over in-and Out-breathing. IV. Whenever the disciple is training himself to inhale or exhale whilst contemplating impermanence, or the fading away of passion, orextinction, or detachment at such a time he is dwelling in"contemplation of the phenomena," full of energy, clearly conscious,attentive, after subduing worldly greed and grief. Watching over In-and Out-breathing, thus practiced and developed,brings the four Fundamentals of Attentiveness to perfection. But how do the four Fundamentals of Attentiveness, practiced and developed, bring the seven Elements of Enlightenment to full perfection? Whenever the disciple is dwelling in contemplation of body, feeling,mind and phenomena, strenuous, clearly conscious, attentive, after subduing worldly greed and grief-at such a time his attentiveness is undisturbed; and whenever his attentiveness is present and undisturbed, at such a time he has gained and is developing the Element of Enlightenment "Attentiveness"; and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection. And whenever, whilst dwelling with attentive mind, he wisely investigates, examines and thinks over the Law-at such a time he has gained and is developing the Element of Enlightenment "Investigationof the Law"; and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection. And whenever, whilst wisely investigating, examining and thinking over the law, his energy is firm and unshaken-at such a time he has gained and is developing the Element of Enlightenment "Energy"; and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection. And whenever in him, whilst firm in energy, arises super sensuous rapture-at such a time he has gained and is developing the Element of Enlightenment "Rapture"; and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection. And whenever, whilst enraptured in mind, his spiritual frame and his mind become tranquil-at such a time he has gained and is developing the Element of Enlightenment "Tranquility"; and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection. And whenever, whilst being tranquilized in his spiritual frame and happy, his mind becomes concentrated-at such a time he has gained and is developing the Element of Enlightenment "Concentration; and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection. And whenever he thoroughly looks with indifference on his mind thus concentrated-at such a time he has gained and is developing the Element of Enlightenment "Equanimity." The four fundamentals of attentiveness, thus practiced and developed, bring the seven elements of enlightenment to full perfection. But how do the seven elements of enlightenment, practiced and developed, bring Wisdom and Deliverance to full perfection? There, the disciple is developing the elements of enlightenment:Attentiveness, Investigation of the Law, Energy, Rapture, Tranquility,Concentration and Equanimity, bent on detachment, on absence of desire, on extinction and renunciation. Thus practiced and developed, do the seven elements of enlightenment bring wisdom and deliverance to full perfection. Just as the elephant hunter drives a huge stake into the ground and chains the wild elephant to it by the neck, in order to drive out of him his wonted forest ways and wishes, his forest unruliness,obstinacy and violence, and to accustom him to the environment ofthe village, and to teach him such good behavior as is requiredamongst men: in like manner also has the noble disciple to fix hismind firmly to these four fundamentals of attentiveness, so that hemay drive out of himself his wonted worldly ways and wishes, hiswonted worldly unruliness, obstinacy and violence, and win to theTrue, and realize Nirvana.

NEXT EIGHTH STEP-RIGHT CONCENTRATION





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